കൊയിനോണിയ: (ഗ്രീക്ക് κοινωνία) ഉദാത്തവും ആഴത്തിലുള്ളതുമായ പങ്കാളിത്തം വഴിയുള്ള കൂട്ടായ്മ എന്നതാണ് കൊയിനോണീയ എന്ന പദം കോണ്ട് വിവക്ഷിക്കുന്നത്. ക്രൈസ്തവ കൂട്ടായ്മയെയും ആദിമ സഭ സമൂഹത്തെയും കുറിക്കാൻ പുതിയ നിയമത്തിൽ ഈ പദം വളരെയേറെ ഉപയോഗിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഈശോയുടെ അന്ത്യ അത്താഴത്തിന്റെ ഓർമ്മയായ അപ്പം മുറിക്കൽ ശുശ്രൂഷയെ കുറിക്കാനും ഈ പദം ഉപയോഗിച്ചു കാണുന്നു [യോഹ 6:48-69, മത്താ 26:26-28, 1 കൊറി 10:16; 11:24].
പുതിയ നിയമത്തിൽ വിശ്വാസികളും ഈശോയുമായുമുള്ള ഐക്യത്തെ സൂചിപ്പിക്കനും ഈ പദം ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നു. ഓരോ വിശ്വാസിയും അനുദിന ജീവിതത്തിൽ ഈ ഐക്യം അനുഭവിക്കുന്നു. വിശ്വാസികൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള ഐക്യത്തിന്റെ ആധാരവും ഇതു തന്നെയാണു.
നടപടി പുസ്തകത്തിലണ് (2:42-47), ഈ പദം ആദ്യമയി ഉപയോഗിച്ചു കാണുന്നത്. ആദിമ സഭാ സമൂഹത്തിന്റെ ജീവിത ശൈലിയെ കുറിക്കാൻ ആണ് ഇവിടെ ഇത് ഉപയോഗിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നത്. കൂട്ടായ്മ തന്നെ ആരാധനയും അപ്പം മുറിക്കൽ പോലെ ശ്രേഷ്ഠവുമായി കരുതപ്പെട്ടു. അപ്പം മുറിക്കലിലാണല്ലോ ശ്ലീഹന്മാർ ഈശോയെ തിരിച്ചറിഞ്ഞത്. പിന്നീട് അപ്പം മുറിക്കലിനെ കൂട്ടായ്മ എന്നും വിളിച്ചു പോന്നു.
A special New Testament application of the word koinonia is to describe the Communion that existed at the celebration of the Lord's Supper or sacrament of the Eucharist. For example, 1 Corinthians 10:16 (KJV) use the English word “communion” to represent the Greek word koinonia. "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?" Any common meal certainly could represent a “sharing.” The koinonia is viewed as much deeper, however, when the meal is associated with a spiritual purpose. Joining in the Lord’s Supper is uniting oneself with other believers in the objective reality of Christ’s death. 
The word has such a multitude of meanings that no single English word is adequate to express its depth and richness. It is a derivative of koinos, the word for common. Koinonia is a complex, rich, and thoroughly fascinating Greek approach to building community or teamwork.
Koinonia embraced a strong commitment to Kalos k'agathos meaning "good and good", an inner goodness toward virtue, and an outer goodness toward social relationships. In the context of outer goodness, translated into English, the meaning of koinonia holds the idea of joint participation in something with someone, such as in a community, or team or an alliance or joint venture. Those who have studied the word find there is always an implication of action included in its meaning. The word is meaning-rich too, since it is used in a variety of related contexts.
Koinonos means 'a sharer' as in to share with one another in a possession held in common. It implies the spirit of generous sharing or the act of giving as contrasted with selfish getting. When koinonia is present, the spirit of sharing and giving becomes tangible. In most contexts, generosity is not an abstract ideal, but a demonstrable action resulting in a tangible and realistic expression of giving.
In classical Greek, koinonein means "to have a share in a thing," as when two or more people hold something, or even all things, in common. It can mean "going shares" with others, thereby having "business dealings,” such as joint ownership of a ship. It can also imply "sharing an opinion" with someone, and therefore agreeing with him, or disagreeing in a congenial way. Only participation as a contributive member allows one to share in what others have. What is shared, received or given becomes the common ground through which Koinonia becomes real.
Koinonos in classical Greek means a companion, a partner or a joint-owner. Therefore, koinonia can imply an association, common effort, or a partnership in common." The common ground by which the two parties are joined together creates an aligned relationship, such as a "fellowship" or "partnership". In a papyrus announcement a man speaks of his brother "with whom I have no koinonia", meaning no business connection or common interest. In the New Testament, (Luke 5:10) James, John, and Simon are called “partners” (koinonia). The joint participation was a shared fishing business.
Two people may enter into marriage in order to have "koinonia of life", that is to say, to live together a life in which everything is shared. Koinonia was used to refer to the marriage bond, and it suggested a powerful common interest that could hold two or more persons together.
The term can also relate to a spiritual relationship. In this sense, the meaning something that is held and shared jointly with others for God, speaking to man's "relationship with God". Epictetus talks of religion as ‘aiming to have koinonia with Zeus". The early Christian community saw this as a relationship with the Holy Spirit. In this context, koinonia highlights a higher purpose or mission that benefits the greater good of the members as a whole. The term "enthusiasm" is connected to this meaning of koinonia for it signifies “to be imbued with the Spirit of God in Us."
To create a bond between comrades is the meaning of koinonia when people are recognized, share their joy and pains together, and are united because of their common experiences, interests and goals. Fellowship creates a mutual bond which overrides each individual’s pride, vanity, and individualism, fulfilling the human yearning with fraternity, belonging, and companionship. This meaning of koinonia accounts for the ease by which sharing and generosity flow. When combined with the spiritual implications of koinonia, fellowship provides a joint participation in God’s graces and denotes that common possession of spiritual values.
Thus early Greco-Roman Christians had a fellowship God, sharing the common experience of joys, fears, tears, and divine glory. In this manner, those who shared believed their true wealth lay not in what they had, but in what they gave to others. Fellowship is never passive in the meaning of koinonia, it is always linked to action, not just being together, but also doing together. With fellowship comes a close and intimate relationship embracing ideas, communication, and frankness, as in a true, blessed interdependent friendship among multiple group members.
The idea of community denotes a “common unity” of purpose and interests. By engaging in this united relationship a new level of consciousness and conscience emerges that spurs the group to higher order thinking and action, thus empowering and encouraging its members to exist in a mutually beneficial relationship. Thus community and family become closely intertwined, because aiming at a common unity strives to overcome brokenness, divisiveness, and, ultimately gaining wholeness with each of the members, with their environment, and with their God. By giving mutual support, friendship and family merge. Both fellowship and community imply an inner and outer unity. Nowhere in the framework of community is there implied a hierarchy of command and control. While there is leadership, the leader’s task is to focus energy, and align interests, not impose control.
Koinonia creates a brethren bond which builds trust and, especially when combined with the values of Wisdom, Virtue and Honor, overcomes two of humanity’s deepest fears and insecurities: being betrayed and being demeaned.
Whether working collectively or individually, the innovators of ancient Greece worked for the greater good of the whole — to propel their community forward, to share their understanding with others so that all ships would rise on a rising tide. Thus loftier goals and dreams are more easily manifested in the mind and achieved in reality. The team’s sense of Purpose became manifest.
ഈശോയുടെ ശരീരം ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുക വഴി വി. കുർബ്ബാനയിലൂടെ വിശ്വാസികൾ പരസ്പരം കൂട്ടായ്മയിൽ ആകുന്നു. ആദിമ സഭയിൽ കുറ്ബാനയുടെ ശരിയായ അർത്ഥം ഇതായിരുന്നു  തോമസ് അക്വീനാസിന്റെ അഭിപ്രായത്തിൽ "പലതെങ്കിലും ക്രിസ്തുവിൽ നാം ഏക ശരീർമായതിനാൽ വി. കുർബാന സഭയുടെ ഐക്യത്തിന്റെ കൂദാശയാണു" 
- ↑ Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 352.
- ↑ Robinson, “Communion; Fellowship,” in Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, pp. 752-753.
- ↑ Lynch, "How the Greeks created the First Golden Age of Innovation".
- ↑ Hertling, L. Communion, Church and Papacy in Early Christianity Chicago: Loyola University, 1972.
- ↑ ST III, 82. 2 ad 3; cf. 82. 9 ad 2.